The designing, constructing, and assembling of ornithopters started when flying started, in 1979. Plans were drawn and the prototypes of the aircraft with flapping wings that would imitate a flying bird were constructed. The first Ornithopter that was propelled by the power of a man's muscles was constructed in 1987. The first flying tests were only partially successful – the pilot could do no better than to raise one wheel of the aircraft off the ground.

The designing and construction process could not do without a close observation of the behaviour of birds. It was the underlying objective of the project to make a machine that would enable a man to fly like a bird. Owing to years of observations and gathered experience it finally became possible to learn the mystery of the flapping wings. The flapping wing flying theory has been successfully formulated. As a test to the theory's accuracy the author tried his best to find its weak points. Without any success, however! The theory proved itself to be correct and consistent. And its final proof is the ornithopter itself as it successfully soars in the air. The time to change our views on the flapping wing flights has finally come!


While constructing the ornithopter Ryszard Szczepański developed many new methods and technical inventions that are ready to be patented. Some of them are the following:


  • The power point of the movement of the wings.

  • The way of stretching the wings without losing their flexibility.

  • The automatic setting of profiles when the wings move.


The full process of completing the project took up ten years, and another several years were needed to gather all the necessary materials. The materials used are the materials usually used in the flying industry and in construction of para-gliders and the like. They include:


  • Aluminum pipes.

  • Carbon pipes.

  • Duralaluminum sheets.

  • Bamboo slat.

  • Dacron materials used in gliders or para-gliders.

  • Windsurfing sail foil.


The construction of the ornithopter was executed in several phases:


  • The construction of the hull and the landing-gear.

  • The construction of the driving mechanism consisting of levers and gears.

  • The construction of tail and the tail plane.

  • The construction of central (carrier) parts of the wings.

  • The construction of the outer parts of the wings.

  • The construction of the engine that would power the aircraft.